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What is Periodontal (Gum) Disease?

The term “periodontal”means “around the tooth.”  Periodontal disease (also known as periodontitis and gum disease) is a common inflammatory condition which affects the supporting and surrounding soft tissues of the tooth; also the jawbone itself when in its most advanced stages.

Periodontal disease is most often preceded by gingivitis which is a bacterial infection of the gum tissue.  A bacterial infection affects the gums when the toxins contained in plaque begin to irritate and inflame the gum tissues.  Once this bacterial infection colonizes in the gum pockets between the teeth, it becomes much more difficult to remove and treat.  Periodontal disease is a progressive condition that eventually leads to the destruction of the connective tissue and jawbone.  If left untreated, it can lead to shifting teeth, loose teeth and eventually tooth loss.

Periodontal disease is the leading cause of tooth loss among adults in the developed world and should always be promptly treated.

Types of Periodontal Disease

When left untreated, gingivitis (mild gum inflammation) can spread to below the gum line.  When the gums become irritated by the toxins contained in plaque, a chronic inflammatory response causes the body to break down and destroy its own bone and soft tissue.  There may be little or no symptoms as periodontal disease causes the teeth to separate from the infected gum tissue.  Deepening pockets between the gums and teeth are generally indicative that soft tissue and bone is being destroyed by periodontal disease.

Here are some of the most common types of periodontal disease:

  • Chronic periodontitis – Inflammation within supporting tissues cause deep pockets and gum recession.  It may appear the teeth are lengthening, but in actuality, the gums (gingiva) are receding.  This is the most common form of periodontal disease and is characterized by progressive loss of attachment, interspersed with periods of rapid progression.

  • Aggressive periodontitis – This form of gum disease occurs in an otherwise clinically healthy individual.  It is characterized by rapid loss of gum attachment, chronic bone destruction and familial aggregation.

  • Necrotizing periodontitis – This form of periodontal disease most often occurs in individuals suffering from systemic conditions such as HIV, immunosuppression and malnutrition.  Necrosis (tissue death) occurs in the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and gingival tissues.

  • Periodontitis caused by systemic disease – This form of gum disease often begins at an early age.  Medical condition such as respiratory disease, diabetes and heart disease are common cofactors.

Treatment for Periodontal Disease

There are many surgical and nonsurgical treatments the periodontist may choose to perform, depending upon the exact condition of the teeth, gums and jawbone.  A complete periodontal exam of the mouth will be done before any treatment is performed or recommended.

Here are some of the more common treatments for periodontal disease:

  • Scaling and root planing – In order to preserve the health of the gum tissue, the bacteria and calculus (tartar) which initially caused the infection, must be removed.  The gum pockets will be cleaned and treated with antibiotics as necessary to help alleviate the infection.  A prescription mouthwash may be incorporated into daily cleaning routines.

  • Tissue regeneration – When the bone and gum tissues have been destroyed, regrowth can be actively encouraged using grafting procedures.  A membrane may be inserted into the affected areas to assist in the regeneration process.

  • Pocket elimination surgery – Pocket elimination surgery (also known as flap surgery) is a surgical treatment which can be performed to reduce the pocket size between the teeth and gums.  Surgery on the jawbone is another option which serves to eliminate indentations in the bone which foster the colonization of bacteria.

  • Dental implants – When teeth have been lost due to periodontal disease, the aesthetics and functionality of the mouth can be restored by implanting prosthetic teeth into the jawbone.  Tissue regeneration procedures may be required prior to the placement of a dental implant in order to strengthen the bone.

Ask your dentist if you have questions or concerns about periodontal disease, periodontal treatment, or dental implants.

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Dr. White has been my dentist going on 15 years now. I feel I am much more particular about my dentist than my medical doctor. Dr. White has the utmost concern for my welfare and for insuring a pain-free dental procedure. Every six months I have my teeth cleaned at his office and he personally examines my teeth for changes. He only recommends procedures that I really need. My teeth aren't the greatest, but Dr. White had repaired many of my teeth and he has even replaced a number of my teeth with crowns. Each time, he time he was very careful to conduct a pain-free procedure and make sure it was done right. He has never had to redo any of the work he's done for me. I would consider Dr. White to be very reasonably priced and I would sincerely recommend his work to anyone who cares about their dental health.

Michael Loehrer

We at Prosites sincerely appreciate the opportunity to design and host your new website. Your dedication to educating and serving your patients is evident by the excellent information and background your website provides to visitors. We salute your efforts in providing that extra level of communication and service that is so important to patients.

Lance V. McCollough President & CEO Prosites, Inc.

I have to say, I have lived in many places and seen many dentists over the
years but Dr. White is one of the best I've come across. From cleanings and
check-ups to emergency appointments and routine rebuilding and replacing of
fillings and crowns I always get great dental care from Dr. White and his
staff. His ability to perform the Cerec procedure for crowns, leaves you
with great fitting, good looking crowns and all in one sitting - it just
can't be beat! Thanks White Family Dentistry for continuing to make my
smile better and better.

Sue Niehoff

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We encourage you to contact St. Louis Park, MN dentist, Dr. Gergory R. White, with any questions or comments you may have. Please call White Family Dentistry, our St.Louis Park General & Cosmetic Dentistry, or use the quick contact form below.
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